At least 30 proprietary formulations of different hormones and progesteroids are commercially available. The pill acts centrally by signaling to the brain that there are estrogens thereby suppressing the hypothalamus and not stimulating the ovaries. The result is that no egg production and ovulation occur and the endometrium is not stimulated, thus preventing both conception and implantation.
Depending on the type of pill we have a different administration. The usual type is the one with a fixed dose of hormones in all tablets of the package. We start these for the first cycle on the 1st day of the period. They last for 21 days, then we have 7 days without pills. After that, we start the next pill regardless of the day of the period.
We have contraception for the days when no pills are taken starting from the second cycle.
In case of vomiting or diarrhea there is a risk of reduced action, so additional contraception is required. Other types of pills have a placebo for 7 days to make it easier for the woman not to forget to take the others. This kind of pills has a variable amount of hormones for each day of the cycle.
Its contraindications are pregnancy, history of thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, known thrombophilia, breast cancer or other type of estrogen-dependent tumor. Other contraindications are liver disease and smoking over the age of 35 years. Related contraindications are varicose veins of the lower limbs, benign breast tumors, uterine fibroids, gallstones, depression and obesity.
Some of the advantages of the pills are that they reduce by 40% the chance of developing ovarian and endometrial cancer.
Also, if the woman takes them for at least two years, they reduce to 60% the dysmenorrhea and the amount of blood loss during the period. Finally, it protects against benign breast diseases and from rheumatoid arthritis.
It is important to understand that for every woman there is the right contraceptive pill. One pill, Yasmin for example, may work well for one woman and cause significant side effects to another. In any case, before starting the pill, the woman should consult her gynecologist.
It is the only method that protects against sexually transmitted diseases and is ideal for women who have casual relationships or those who have new partners.
It is done in two ways. One is cauterization and the second is cross-section of the Fallopian tubes or a clip placement. It only takes 4 hours of hospitalization. This process requires general anesthesia. The efficiency is almost 100% and the restoration of the functionality of the Fallopian tubes is achieved only in 50% after micro surgical restoration.
Surgeons can also perform tubal ligation. It is the removal of the or ligation of the Fallopian tubes during a cesarean section or in labor.
This method is not available in Greece. These are progesterone excipients that the gynecologist implants subcutaneously in the form of a small tablet or a slow-release, viscous fluid that provides contraception for three months. The side effects of this method are menstrual disorders or amenorrhea.
It is a thin plastic latex with a diameter of 5-10 cm which the woman places before intercourse in her vagina and mechanically prevents conception. She should combine it with spermicide cream for greater protection. Its failure ranges from 3-15% in women who use the method in one year. It is more suitable for older women who have low fertility.
It is a 2 cm foreign body that is plastic or copper and has progesterone. It has a double action because it primarily prevents conception and secondarily implantation. Its action is for 3-5 years from its placement depends on the type of spiral.
It is preferred to be placed on the 2nd day of the period and no special analgesia is required. This method is one of the most reliable methods of contraception (99%). It is contraindicated in women with endometritis.
In Greece, there are two types of pills which act within the first 72 hours to 4 days after intercourse. The sooner you receive it, the higher the efficiency. It can reach 95%. The most common side effect is uterus bleeding.
Women are not allowed to use it more than once in each menstrual cycle. Its action is the creation of an unsuitable environment for the implantation of the fertilized egg.