Breast deseases

Woman’s breast is subject to functional and morphological changes associated with menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and menopause. There are many benign but also malignant conditions in the breast, which, however can be succesfully treated if they are diagnosed early.

Prevention

Every woman is required to do a self-examination once every 6 months. Most tumors have been detected by the women themselves. No one can know a woman’s breast better than herself!
Undoubtedly, after the age of 20 years women should be examined by their gynecologist once every year accompanied by a breast ultrasound if a condition is suspected.
At the age of 40, the first mammography must be done. After this age mammography / ultrasound should be done annually and from 50-69 years of age every 2 years.

How is a breast self-examination done?

Breast self examination includes visual and then palpable examination. The visual examination is done in front of a mirror with the hands down and parallel to the body. We notice any unusual signs or changes in the breasts, such as a change in size or in their shape, any lumps, lumps or redness in the area. The same test is repeated with your arms upright or behind the head.

If there is some excretion from the nipple, or if any other lesion is felt,
the gynecologist must be informed directly, who will perform a full examination.

Benign diseases

Benign conditions are 88% -90% of the pathology of the breast and include all pathological conditions other than cancer.

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the most common cause of death among young women nowadays. Unfortunately, 1 out of 10 women will suffer from this disease. In some cases it happens in women of reproductive age.

Symptoms

  • Palpated mass

  • Change of the skin above the tumor

  • Nipple insertion

  • Nipple secretion

Risk factors

  • Familly history of breast cancer.

  • Obesity

  • Late first pregnancy

  • Early menarche and late menopause

  • BRCA 1 and 2 mutations.

  • Exposition to radiation

Diagnosis

  • Clinic examination – self- examination

  • Mammography

  • Ultrasound

  • IRM

  • Biopsy

Therapy

The treatment of breast cancer is effective in the majority of cases, especially if diagnosis has been done early. It includes chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal preparations and surgical treatment. It is often necessary to combine the above mentioned therapies.